From the November 1998 problem of Automotive and Driver.
Truthful warning: The next will probably be barely prejudicial reportage on 5 cars typically described as luxurious sedans. In a broad sense all of them qualify, possessing as they do svelte traces, luxurious interiors, and as-examined costs from $50,000 to $57,000. All are propelled by advanced-design V-8s spinning by means of equally superior four- and five-speed computerized transmissions. And all, save for one—the front-drive Cadillac STS—are rear-wheel-drive vehicles. Every is laden with what the business likes to name “content,” accoutrements and comfort objects seldom discovered on lesser manufacturers. Though their producers—two German (BMW 540i, Mercedes-Benz E430), two Japanese (lnfiniti Q45t, Lexus GS400), and one American (Cadillac STS)—describe them as five-passenger sedans, they’re in actuality helpful in transporting solely 4 adults over causein a position distances.
The employees of this journal tends to skew its evaluations of automobiles on this class not on the premise of consolation, silence, and smooth journey however fairly on agility, roadworthiness, and a sure hedonistic quotient that we imagine must exist in any autocellular no matter its mission or value class. That is the place we depart from different skilled testers who would possibly concentrate on seating softness, sound-system high quality, and transmission suppleness when coping with this five-some. Anybody searching for such evaluations is directed to Shopper Experiences. However for these all for luxurious sedans providing long-distance, high-speed transport in equal dollops of consolation and driving pleasure, learn on.
For openers, not one of the 5 machines handled right here could be moderately faulted by way of high quality or common enchantment. However as we narrowed our evaluations throughout two days of laborious driving within the hills and hummocks of upstate New York, it turned obvious that we had been dealing not with 5 comparable machines, however with two delicate however critically divergent sorts—three full-blown, high-performance machines within the European idiom, and a pair of tamer, kinder gentler variations on the home theme that didn’t enflame our admittedly boyish enthusiasms.
fifth Place: Infiniti Q45t
For the reason that Infiniti Q45 was launched in late 1989, accompanied by a hilariously pretentious promoting marketing campaign that includes bonsai bushes and Japanese rock and sand formations, it has been dogged by ennui. Lengthy celebrated for its very good high quality, the large sedan has, regardless of three styling iterations, but to search out actual traction within the luxury-car market. Its inclusion on this take a look at was primarily based on the enhancement of its touring suspension to incorporate adjustable shock absorbers. Additionally, all Q45s profit from a gentle restyling of the inside and exterior—a brand new grille, gas-discharge headlights, and a brand new sprint.
HIGHS: Jewellery-like fabrication, comfy and capacious inside.
LOWS: Dreary, spinoff styling; fluid however forgettable on-road character.
VERDICT: A reliable luxurious automotive seeking a vivid identification.
At 4047 kilos, it was the heaviest automotive within the group. And the slowest—it did the 0-to-60 trick in 8.4 seconds, nearly two seconds off the tempo, and turned the quarter-mile in a modest 16.5 seconds at 87 mph. Its DOHC 32-valve V-8 was defanged in 1997 from 4.5 liters and 278 horsepower to 4.1 liters and 266 horses—the second-smallest displacement and lowest output of the lot. That, coupled with its two-ton heft (greater than 250 kilos heavier than the quickest of the 5, the BMW 540i), explains the fairly sluggish efficiency and mannerly however unremarkin a position dealing with, no matter its adjustable suspension. (That system ostensibly provided each luxurious and sporting capabilities, however none of our testers might discern a lot distinction.)
The Infiniti’s energy lies in a spacious inside and an expensive cabin that includes yards of soppy leather-based and actually board-feet of pretty convincing faux wooden trim. The decor is tastefully subdued, save for the odd placement of a white-faced, chrome-bezeled clock in the course of the instrument panel that seems to have been stolen from a 1940 Philco radio. Rear-seat room for 2 and three passengers tied the Benz for better of the group.
Though the Q45t deports itself properly on prolonged freeway jaunts, its helpfulness as a high-performance sedan is limited in comparison with the most effective vehicles on this group. Quick bends produce a obscure sensation of flotation, and laborious cornering shortly reveals that the Q45 provides considerably much less grip than the opposite entrants.
Nonetheless, it was laborious to pinpoint main shortcomings of this Infiniti, and we discovered it troublesome to outline any sturdy sensations, an impression finest acknowledged by one take a look at driver as “acutely bland, a Japanese Taurus.” One other famous, “No character.”
Neither fish nor foul, the Infiniti Q45t just isn’t fast or nimble sufficient to get excessive marks within the luxo-sports-sedan league, nor does it provide enough visible influence and élan to compete with true luxurious vehicles just like the 7-series BMW and the brand new S-class Mercedes-Benz. Somewhat than leaving it in a advertising and marketing limbo, maybe the Nissan product planners would think about including eight inches to the wheelbase and transforming the Q45t into an unabashed full-size luxurious sedan. Which may create a market area of interest for what is basically an outstanding car.
1998 Infiniti Q45t
266-hp V-8, 4-speed computerized, 4047 lb
Base/as-tested value: $51,500/$52,600 (est.)
C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 8.4 sec
1/4 mile: 16.5 sec @ 87 mph
100 mph: 22.0 sec
130 mph: 36.0 sec
Braking, 70–0 mph: 195 ft
Roadholding, 300-ft-dia skidpad: 0.73 g
C/D noticed gas economic system: 20 mpg
4th Place: Cadillac STS
For openers, think about that amongst this group of gamers, the STS was the longest (201 inches) and the widest (75 inches, about 4 inches greater than the remainder), and with the Infiniti, one in all solely two to tip the scales at greater than 4000 kilos (4034 kilos, to be actual). This heftiness greater than offset the 300 horsepower produced by its much-celebrated DOHC 32-valve Northstar V-8 and subsequently relegated the Cadillac to fourth place within the efficiency standings—a place that appeared to represent the general sentiments of the take a look at drivers as they tallied their last scores.
HIGHS: Tasteful inside, lusty Northstar V-8 provides Yankee-style energy.
LOWS: Pointless measurement and bulk, evolutionary styling, lurking understeer.
VERDICT: One of the best Cadillac, however not the most effective at school.
There’s a lot to love in regards to the STS, together with its good-looking inside, lavished in hardwood and leather-based, and the automotive is well-optioned. The one element that qualifies for common scorn is the outsized, console-mounted transmission shift lever that seems higher suited to a Class 8 Kenworth or a D9 Cat bulldozer. (Notice: Solely the Caddy and the Q45 have 4-speed automatics; the three others provide extra modern five-speed autos.) Though this STS is smaller than its predecessor, it’s nonetheless constructed on a considerably outdated, bigger scale, adhering to the age-old behavior of American carmakers to imagine that greater is best, particularly when making an attempt to create an aura of luxurious.
Regardless of such neatly labeled devices as “efficiency algorithm shifting,” a stability-enhancement system referred to as “StabiliTrak,” “Magnasteer” variable-assist energy steering, and a road-sensing digital suspension, the STS lagged effectively behind the leaders within the twisty stuff. It was, little question, inhibited by its two-ton bulk and 62-percent ahead weight bias that may generate nasty understeer. Mentioned one editor following a brisk drive by means of a collection of sweepers, “All of the Cadillac’s strikes really feel a step behind, as if yet one more gentle curve would throw the entire works within the ditch.” “Unrefined” was the adjective chosen by one other staffer when describing the STS as compared with the most effective of the entries.
Its giant, economy-size exterior dimensions however, the Cadillac doesn’t fare effectively in passenger consolation and capability. Though by SAE measurements its rear-seat inside quantity is bigger than the others’, precise knee and elbow room appear to undergo, and solely the Lexus GS400 provides much less consolation amongst these 5 sedans with three passengers within the again.
Certainly, the STS is the best Cadillac in latest historical past, and a few would argue that, as maybe America’s premier four-door sedan, it must rank with the most effective on this class. However till its extreme measurement and weight and cumbersome street manners could be handled, “the Normal of the World” will probably be taking part in catch-up on this very quick league.
1998 Cadillac STS
300-hp V-8, 4-speed computerized, 4034 lb
Base/as-tested value: $48,476/$51,410
C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 6.8 sec
1/4 mile: 15.3 sec @ 92 mph
100 mph: 18.5 sec
130 mph: 28.4 sec
Braking, 70–0 mph: 192 ft
Roadholding, 300-ft-dia skidpad: 0.79 g
C/D noticed gas economic system: 20 mpg
third Place: Mercedes-Benz E430
Sharp-eyed readers will recall our December 1996 comparability take a look at (“The 50-Kilobuck Class”) wherein the E420, powered by a DOHC 32-valve V-8 producing 275 horsepower and 295 pound-feet of torque, ranked first. For 1998, Mercedes upgraded to a complicated, new, extremely efficient modular SOHC 24-valve, 4.3-liter V-8 producing the identical horsepower and torque—and slipped into third place. How can this be, you would possibly ask? In any case, the E430 rockets to 60 mph in 6.4 seconds and hits the quarter-mile in 15 flat at 97 mph. That is effectively forward of the tempo set by the E420, which in any case wasn’t the quickest automotive in its comparability take a look at.
HIGHS: Conventional, ingotlike Mercedes-Benz structural integrity; new state-of-the-art three-valve, fuel-efficient V-8 engine.
LOWS: Been-there, seen-that styling; US Airways coach inside in a Concorde physique.
VERDICT: An excellent car squeezed out by two even better ones.
Our reply hinges on the truth that the Benz’s competitors within the final take a look at was skewed extra towards the luxurious finish of the spectrum. This day trip, inclusion of the overtly sporting GS400 prompted us to ask Sport and Touring fashions of the 540i, the Seville, and the Q45. These packages all embrace suspension modifications to boost dealing with. Mercedes provides a Sport bundle on the E430, however for a lofty $4227, it solely contains fatter 17-inch wheels and tires and an in depth aero physique package. Grip may need been improved (our take a look at automotive’s 0.82 g was already 0.01 g higher than the BMW’s), however the automotive’s dealing with demeanor and below-average lane-change efficiency wouldn’t have been enhanced $4000 price, so we opted towards it. Because it was, our take a look at automotive’s $56,742 sticker value surpassed the BMW’s value by greater than a grand and soared previous the GS400’s value by greater than $6000.
The E430 is the crossover machine of this group, overlaying the luxurious turf occupied by the much less sporty Q45t and STS and, on the identical time, performing nearly in keeping with the steamier 540i and GS400.
On the draw back, the Benz’s styling, at the very least aft of its goggle-eyed fascia, is perhaps overly acquainted and a little bit boring. Likewise, the inside design—though hotter than some earlier Benz designs—borders on the extreme amongst opponents on this group.
Nonetheless, the E430 is a blinding instance of up to date automotive design. Weighing simply 3580 kilos, it’s inside a number of tenths of a second from being as fast because the BMW and the Lexus, though we sense a sure Teutonic severity that much lessened the all-important (to us) “enjoyable to drive” quotient. Offsetting that is the E430’s wonderful utilization of inside house and its prime rating in gas economic system (25 mpg throughout our 900-mile take a look at). Furthermore, a common sentiment was expressed that if any of those machines had been saved for 200,000 miles, the Mercedes would possible fare finest in total solidity and price of depreciation. These endearing qualities, plus a mere 5 factors within the balloting, would have made the E430 a repeat winner, at the very least within the hearts and minds of Mercedes-Benz loyalists.
1998 Mercedes-Benz E430
275-hp V-8, 5-speed computerized, 3580 lb
Base/as-tested value: $52,259/$56,742
C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 6.4 sec
1/4 mile: 15.0 sec @ 97 mph
100 mph: 15.9 sec
130 mph: 24.5 sec
Braking, 70–0 mph: 187 ft
Roadholding, 300-ft-dia skidpad: 0.82 g
C/D noticed gas economic system: 25 mpg
2nd Place: Lexus GS400
The primary try by Lexus to supply a mid-size sedan that will fill the hole between its flagship LS400 and the gussied-up, Camry-based ES300 was a dud. The outdated GS300 was an overpriced, flaccid performer, and it was forgettably styled regardless of its Giugiaro pedigree. It posed no menace to the class-leading Benzes, Bimmers, and Audis and was ignored by lovers and luxury-car lovers alike. However the arrival final yr of the brand new GS400, with its radical bodywork and 300-hp, 4.0-liter V-8, immediately elevated it into the heady German area, proving to be able to working nostril to nostril with the most effective of the breed. Had it not been for low scores in rear-seat capability for 3 passengers—it was decidedly extra cramped again there than it was within the 4 different again seats on this take a look at—and debate over the brand new form (some editors thought it dazzling, others felt it too bustle-backed), the one-point loss to the BMW would absolutely have been reversed.
HIGHS: Eyeball-popping velocity and dealing with, unsurpassed match and end, gobs of facilities.
LOWS: Love-it-or-hate-it styling, fairly harsh journey.
VERDICT: Simply once you thought solely the Germans knew easy methods to make high-performance four-doors. . .
Efficiency-wise, the GS400 was for all intents and functions the equal of the profitable BMW. Zero-to-60 and quarter-mile instances had been however a tenth slower—6.2 seconds to the BMW’s 6.1, and 14.8 seconds at 97 mph versus the Bimmer’s 14.7 at 98 mph. The Lexus bested the BMW in 70-to-0 braking distance (166 ft vs. 175), in prime velocity (148 mph vs. 131, each governed), in gas economic system (24 vs. 22 C/D-noticed mpg), and on the skidpad (0.83 g to 0.81). It additionally scored higher in such subjective evaluations as transmission efficiency (crisp and aggressive, aided by a manual-override mode managed by shift buttons on the steering wheel), match and end, and common content material.
Some grievance was registered over what a number of take a look at drivers believed to be a faintly uneven journey, maybe traceable to the 235/45ZR-17 ultra-low-profile tires (though the BMW was equally outfitted). Nonetheless, the general dealing with of the Lexus obtained rave critiques, together with such notations as “gentle, nimble, and able to play,” “I like the steering, no misplaced movement, straightforward to level,” “completely weighted,” and “the sports activities automotive of the bunch.”
Save for the compacted rear seat, the GS400’s inside additionally obtained excessive marks, centered on the ergonomically pleasant instrument panel; and the backlit, silver-blue-tinted devices that mechanically modify to ambient gentle circumstances.
Added to those interesting options is a sticker value of $50,347, the bottom in our luxurious herd and greater than 5 grand lower than the profitable BMW. Primarily based on such numbers, one might actually query the GS400’s No. 2 end. Suffice it to say that on this explicit take a look at, a one-point separation in scores is likely to be thought-about a tie. The brand new Lexus GS400 is that good.
1998 Lexus GS400
300-hp V-8, 5-speed computerized, 3811 lb
Base/as-tested value: $45,946/$50,347
C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 6.2 sec
1/4 mile: 14.8 sec @ 97 mph
100 mph: 15.8 sec
130 mph: 24.5 sec
Braking, 70–0 mph: 166 ft
Roadholding, 300-ft-dia skidpad: 0.83 g
C/D noticed gas economic system: 24 mpg
1st Place: BMW 540i
Just like the Mercedes-Benz E-class sedans, BMW 5-series machines have been identified portions at Automotive and Driver since a few of the present editors had been nonetheless in Pampers. In April 1998, we accomplished a long-term take a look at of the six-speed-manual-transmission model of the 540i—liked the automotive, frowned on the fairly excessive fundamentaltenance prices. We knew going into this five-car analysis that the five-speed-automatic variation would give little away in efficiency and total enchantment. Not solely is the automated 540i a lusty performer in contrast with the six-speed, however—outfitted as ours was with the $3333 Sport bundle—it is also superior (though marginally) inside this group of 5. Nevertheless it was not a lot particular person numbers recorded by our take a look at gear that served the BMW so effectively, however fairly the overall bundle that drove it to the highest of the rankings: its ride-and-handling stability, its energy and luxury ranges, and its construct high quality. With out query each the Lexus and the E430 are the equal of the 540i in lots of classes and surpass it in a number of, however when considering the sum of all its elements, the BMW was awarded the highest spot, however by only a single level over the GS400.
HIGHS: Real, critical, all-around excessive efficiency; passionate engine.
LOWS: Fifty-five massive ones is rather a lot for a smallish four-door sedan.
VERDICT: King for now, however uneasy lies thy crown.
Being victims of subjectivity, we gave prime marks to the 540i’s 4.4-liter, 32-valve DOHC V-8, which produces a remarkably spellbinding exhaust observe for a high-dollar luxurious sedan. Though rated at solely 282 horses—versus the 300 of the STS and GS400 V-8s—the BMW’s 310 pound-feet of torque matched the most effective at school. That, coupled with the automotive’s moderately gentle weight of 3792 kilos, helped to account for it class-leading acceleration and midrange passing functionality.
However discounting the BMW’s broad spectrum of energy, it was the automotive’s total athleticism that received the day. “Precisely what you’d count on from a BMW. Feels smaller, extra compact, extra enjoyable,” famous one editor. “Massively competent and comfortable,” mentioned one other. If there have been any complaints, they handled what some drivers felt was an on-center lifeless spot within the steering and a certain laziness within the downshift from fifth to fourth gear whereas passing. However these deficiencies had been offset by excessive scores for the wonderful seats, the stiff construction, four-passenger consolation, and world-class over-the-road competence beneath all circumstances. Due to this fact, giving the 540i any critical demerits was not possible, even when evaluating it with various pure grand-touring coupes and alleged sports activities vehicles we have pushed currently.
Sure, like the remainder of the sedans on this group, we wish to see the BMW priced nearer to $40,000 than to $60,000, the place it will characterize excessive worth fairly than a questionable luxurious for standing seekers and the profligate wealthy. However at any value, the BMW 540i represents noble excessive function within the artwork of automotive constructing, and thus it absolutely deserves its prime rating on this small, unique, and customarily wonderful group of cars.
1998 BWW 540i
282-hp V-8, 5-speed computerized, 3792 lb
Base/as-tested value: $52,125/$55,458
C/D TEST RESULTS
60 mph: 6.1 sec
1/4 mile: 14.7 sec @ 98 mph
100 mph: 15.4 sec
130 mph: 23.6 sec
Braking, 70–0 mph: 175 ft
Roadholding, 300-ft-dia skidpad: 0.81 g
C/D noticed gas economic system: 22 mpg